Islam and Social Life in the Indonesian Archipelago

Table of Contents

The moral and social teachings of Sharia make it incompatible with many social and cultural practices in modern societies both at home and abroad where Muslims live under the rule or influence of non-Muslims.

For example: In some non-Muslim countries where polygamy is allowed (often Christian), some men take up to four wives at a time @ ignoring their responsibilities towards their existing wives or their children from previous marriages if they have or interfere with them.

alone with what these wives think about their extra wife being brought into their home without any consideration whatsoever against them whatever whatever whatever whatever whatever whatever whatever whatever whatever whatever whatever ever! In Jordan, polygamy caused so many scKamils when it was practiced by King Hussein that he dissociated himself from it altogether@ though he still had many wives throughout his life!

To summarize all this information about how various aspects of modern life can seem inconsistent with what Islam teaches about humans living together in harmony under one God would require the entire book itself! However, it seems that the application of aspects of Islam such as those mentioned above can alienate Muslims instead of aligning them with modern culture@ hence why there has been so much controversy regarding Muslim practice around the world throughout history! This remains an ongoing process both for Muslims themselves around the world and for non-Muslims who desire not only tolerance but also harmonious coexistence between adherents of different faiths around the world!

The main purpose of Sharia is to set moral and social stKamirds for Muslims.

According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was chosen by God to bring about a new religious system for mankind which he called the “khilafah” or “leadership” for his followers.

He delivered this Message in Arabic called “Quran” which was recorded by his Companions after his death as “Hadith” or “tradition.” At first, Muhammad founded an Arab religious community in Medina before expanding to other countries with his followers.

As an integral part of everyday life in Muslim countries, Sharia is an integral part of social life in these societies.

It regulates economic activities such as business, taxation and trade as well as family life such as marriage, divorce, child custody, inheritance laws and dietary restrictions (Halal vs.

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HARAM).

ISLAM IS THE RELIGION OF 1.6 BILLION PEOPLE WORLDWIDE.

The Islamic belief system is based on the Qur’an – the holy book revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad.

Islam teaches that everything belongs to God; Humans are only servants of the earth and its descendants.

They must worship God, follow the commandments of the Qur’an, respect their parents and relatives, uphold social justice, avoid usury and alcohol and have sex only with partners.

Islam also has some dogmas@ obligations from the scriptures that cannot be ignored@ such as the five daily prayers and fasting in the holy month of Ramadan.

The main purpose of Sharia is to set moral and social stKamirds for the Muslim community.

The main purpose of Sharia is to set moral and social stKamurds for Muslims; however, it can cause confusion when applied in a modern society where everything is subject to interpretation.

For example: Apartments are sometimes segregated by gender in Muslim-majority countries (except Turkey), but not elsewhere in the world.

In addition, like many other religions, Islam considers marriage between close relatives (the eldest child marries the eldest daughter) as unacceptable as it causes genetic problems and lowers fertility rates among future generations.

But if we consider that people need a family unit @ made up of partners united to each other @ for the purpose of reproduction (i.e., procreation), then there seems to be no problem with this marriage in the family when there is no mixing between families or clans either socially.

or biologically (the eldest daughter marries the eldest son).

ACCORDING TO WWPR, COURT RITUALS ARE SIMILAR FOR HINDUISM AND ISLAM IN THAT BOTH RELIGIONS GLORIFY ONE SUPREME BEING OR DIVINITY (I.E., ALLAH IN ISLAM VERSUS VISHNU IN VAISHNAVAS).

However, there are fundamental differences between the two religions such as how Hindus worship through ritualistic sacrifices whereas Muslims worship through charity or zakat (see Figure 3).

They also have different beliefs such as how Hindus believe that Brahma created many worlds in several planes@ while Muslims believe that all world religions originate from one supreme deity through Adam@ to teach humanity spiritual lessons about good versus evil, heaven versus hell.

and salvation versus damnation (ie, “jihad”) through war between the armies of good and evil on earth (see Figure 4).

According to Wijaya Widja Putra Ramanujaya (WWPR), Hinduism still influenced Mataram society at that time because it was originally brought by non-Indians in Javanese society as well as by Indians who remained after Buddhist persecution ended in the 5th century.

(see Figure 2).

But apart from being influenced by Hinduism@ a religion that emphasizes worship of one supreme being@ Mataram has also incorporated Islamic practices into its own syncretic belief system known as the Great Buddha Buddha (also known as the State Language or the National Language).

Islam has become very popular among the natives of Java today as it was brought from Arabia by Arab traders who frequented Indonesia during this period.

ACCORDING TO THE HISTORIAN PRAMANA WIJAYA, THE ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THE MATARAM REGION WERE HINDUS FROM INDIA AND SOUTHEASTERN ASIA.

They settled in Java around 400 BC, bringing with them Indian literature, religion, art, and architecture.

However, over time most of the Indians left Java due to internal conflicts between their leaders and the political instability caused by outside invasions from China, Tamim and Ternate.

Therefore, when Adikuning Karang established his kingdom around 1400, most of the people were non-Indian Javanese known as “Yadavas” or “Kadavas” (the modern term for these people is “Javanese”).

Most Javanese are from India; they are partly Asian@ especially Indian@ and partly Indonesian through their Javanese or native Indian ancestors who settled in Asia before returning home centuries later with Buddhism in tow.

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The Mataram kingdom was located in the Indonesian part of Java and consisted of eleven regencies.

This kingdom was founded by Adikuning Karang 100 years after the fall of the Kadriyanthara dynasty.

The Adikuning Karang dynasty lasted for 350 years and was one of the longest dynasties in Indonesian history.

During their reign, the kings of Kadriyanthara were mostly concerned with military matters, despite their previous work as diplomats.

This translates to an irregular way of life for their subject.

The Hindu-Buddhist culture that prevailed under Kadriyanthara became rigid and stagnant under the influence of the Hindu caste system.

However, under the leadership of Adikuning Karang, a new era of social reform began.

They strive to create a harmonious culture where all classes live together in peace and harmony.

By striving to create a culturally harmonious society based on mutual respect between the different castes @ Adikuning Karang did just that @ he laid the foundations for a Kadriyanthara era society that would last 350 years before ending through European colonialism.

As explained above @ Kadriyanthara culture is infused with elements taken from other cultures due to the political instability prevailing under Buddhist rule during this period when the Kadriyanthara kingdom fell into chaos due to internal conflicts between them.

Indonesia is an archipelagic country located in Southeast Asia.

It is the largest country in Southeast Asia and the tenth largest in the world by land area and population.

It has more than thirteen thousand islands, a thousand of which are inhabited.

The landscapes range from beaches to mountains and from forests to deserts.

The history of Indonesia began more than two hundred million years ago when the continent of Gondwana was united with India.

The story of Indonesia covers ancient civilizations, colonial times, wars, political unrest, and economic developments.

Over time, Indonesians have developed distinct traditions and cultures that make them unique compared to other populations around the world.

At various times in Indonesian history, Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic influences have shaped Indonesian society.

Under Hindu-Buddhist influence from the sixth century BC to the fifteenth century AD@ a period known as the “Mogul Dynasty” when several Islamic kingdoms ruled much of the world

The influence of Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic culture on Indonesian society dates back to the fourth century BC when Indian traders began to visit Indonesia at that time.

These Indian traders brought Indian art, culture, religion, technology and business models to Indonesia.

They also brought Sanskrit literature which had Indian interpretations of Hinduism and Buddhism in it@ this was in contrast to the original Asian Buddhist traditions which were already different from the Indian interpretations of that time.

Apart from India, Arab traders also frequently visited Indonesia during this period bringing with them their own Islamic culture at that time.

These influences combined to create a distinct Indonesian culture with its own traditions and customs that were different from other cultures around it at that time.

These include Malay Muslim cultural traditions such as coconut wrestling called sepak rana adu (also known as “kroncong”) as well as local traditional festivals such as lake piasa (also known as “obon”).

In addition to influences from India and Arabia, there was also influence from China through the trade routes of Southeast Asia at that time as well.

UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM FROM AROUND THE 8TH CENTURY AD TO THE 15TH CENTURY AD@ A PERIOD KNOWN AS THE “MOGUL DYNASTY” WHEN SEVERAL ISLAMIC EMPIRES RULED MOST OF THE WORLD INCLUDING PARTS OF EUROPE@ INDONESIA ADOPTED MANY ISLAMIC CUSTOMS SUCH AS WEARING THE HEADSCARF BY MUSLIM WOMEN WHO CALLED “DRESS MALAY”.

This malay shirt is similar to the Chinese cheongsam but differs by having different patterns on it which are called “gold” or “peak” designs depending on where the wearer is from@ it shows how local styles are influenced by global trends at the same time! Moreover under the influence of Islam during this period @ the rulers of the Malaysian sultanates imported slavery into their kingdom for the purpose of labor so that they could buy goods produced abroad via the trade routes they controlled @ this shows how international trade practices existed even during this period.

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that time!

The Hindu-Buddhist influence on Indonesian culture began when Indian Buddhist monks traveled to Southeast Asia via the Pali sea route around the second route.

century BC to bring Buddhism to China and other places in Asia where Buddhism was already practiced.

Apart from bringing Buddhism to other places in Asia, these Indian Buddhist monks also brought an Indian interpretation called Mahayana Buddhism, not the original Asian Buddhist tradition which was already different from the Indian interpretation at that time.

These Mahayana Buddhist monks founded universities where they taught foreign students from countries such as Greco-Bactria (now Afghanistan), China, Korea and Japan respectively during their journeys around the region that came to be known as “Kaliyajña dvipa” or ” Black Continent” (now known as Africa).

During these ancient times when global communication was not as easy or accessible as it is today, travel between different regions around the world took as much time as ancient times using sea routes, not because sea travel was dangerous due to piracy on the spot@ this is how global communications were made.

currently practiced today appeared!

ALTHOUGH INFLUENCED BY WESTERN IDEAS SUCH AS INDIVIDUALISM AND DEMOCRACY AT THE TIME OF INDEPENDENCE IN INDONESIA TODAY, THESE VALUES CONTRADICT WHAT IS STIPULATED IN ISLAMIC LAW REGARDING LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE2 .

Therefore, perhaps what Indonesians feel today is not dissent towards the government, but rather an attempt to uphold the old model based on the principles espoused by western culture and Islamic law by the Indonesian government under pressure from Islamic groups since 19993 .

Regardless of how they feel about it now@ it seems that when faced with a new way of life influenced by eastern and western ideas more than 200 years ago4, many traditional Javanese do not necessarily resist this change but prefer how they will respond5.

THE RESPONSE OF TRADITIONAL JAVANESE SOCIETY TO THE RISE OF ISLAM IS ALSO EASY TO SEE IF YOU LOOK AT CONTEMPORARY EVENTS IN INDONESIA TODAY.

Most Indonesians are Muslim or Catholic@ two religions that originated in Europe and retain some non-Christian elements within them.

But at the same time, there are still many Indonesian non-Christians such as Hindus and Buddhists who practice ancient customs that are contrary to other religions.

These followers must adapt their old traditions so as not to appear disrespectful to other people’s religions or threaten the legitimacy of local government through protest movements.

Regardless of how they feel about it now, historiographies show that many traditional Javanese people embraced aspects of their old beliefs while embracing aspects found in Islam during the early years of colonialism in Indonesia1 .

When it comes to social change during Indonesia’s colonial period under Dutch rule – there was more contact between Europe and Asia than today6.

Both Asian countries such as China opened their markets to Europe around this time7; however, European countries such as the Netherlands also have a very large impact on Java today8 .

As a result, Dutch traders brought products such as cloth from Europe@ which created opportunities for local producers in the country9 .

The economic boom created by European trade also led to increased contact between Europeans and the local population10 .

This resulted in many Europeans marrying locals11, creating locals who were descendants of these unions12.

In addition, Dutch authorities imposed stricter rules during Christian holidays than Protestant authorities in Germany13, leading some historians to describe this period as “less tolerant than its reputation14 suggests” towards non-Christians15.

What is apparent here @ is that there was an increase in social change that took place under Dutch rule16 , although there are still aspects

IN THE PAST, JAVANESE SOCIETY WAS MOSTLY BUDDHIST.

However, when the Dutch East India Company (VOC) arrived in Java in the 17th century, they aimed to increase trade with Asia.

As a result, many European traders and their families settled in Indonesia.

They brought with them western culture and ideas about individualism.

This changed the traditional Javanese life significantly.

In response to this “westernization”, some traditional Javanese values were maintained or even enhanced.

However, at the same time, traditional Javanese society was also influenced by the emergence of a new religion@ Islam.

Most importantly, there is no unified response from traditional Javanese society to this change.

THE EFFECT OF THE EMERGENCE OF A NEW RELIGION ON TRADITIONAL JAVANESE VALUES IS EASY TO SEE.

Javanese traditional beliefs are largely based on Buddhism, which is a non-violent belief system.

On the other hand, Islam is a religion based on obedience to God’s will and respect for other religions.

From this perspective, the two religions promote different ways of life that may clash with one another@ something that has historically led to conflict.

With this in mind, traditional Javanese may feel threatened by the rise of Islam for destroying their way of life.

This may lead them to reject aspects of their old traditions in favor of preserving their way of life more generally.

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