Islam Caliphate History: You Should Know

The Islamic caliphate is an Islamic term referring to the collective leadership of the entire Muslim community.

Hadaanallah.com – The most famous and successful caliphate was the one led by Muhammad, the Prophet Muhammad’s cousin and husband of his widow, Aisha.

Under his leadership, the early Muslims established a Muslim empire that has remained popular among Muslims throughout history.

Muslims now have several different empires based on Islamic countries.

The biggest one is the Turkish Ottoman Empire- which once spanned from Greece and Romania to central Germany and Austria.

A second major Islamic empire is based in Afghanistan and is known as the Afghan Caliphate.

Other major Islamic empires include those from Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, Iran and Iran; from India and Bangladesh; from Indonesia and East Timor; from Iraq, Kuwait and Qatar; from Mali and Mauritania; from Mindanao in the Philippines; from Morocco in Africa; from Nigeria in Africa; from Pakistan in Asia; and from Syria in Europe.

The first Muslim empire was based in Medina, and it initially covered only a small portion of Arabia.

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As more territories converted to Islam, they became part of the Muslim empire.

Eventually, several other countries and territories converted to Islam and became part of the Muslim empire under the caliph’s rule.

The Muslim empire eventually stretched from Spain in the West to Afghanistan in the East; from Morocco in the North to Persia in the South.

THE CALIPHS WHO LEAD TODAY’S ISLAMIC COMMUNITIES ARE LEADERS OF MANY MUSLIM PEOPLE WORLDWIDE- NOT JUST THOSE LIVING WITHIN SPECIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL ENTITIES SUCH AS A COUNTRY OR A TERRITORY.

As technology advances, these communities interact with one another more effectively than ever before via social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter.

For this reason, leaders of these massive global populations will no doubt be instrumental in determining how future generations will strive towards greater spiritual enlightenment or moral clarity under a common set of beliefs- namely Sunni Islam or Islam as interpreted by Sunni Muslims throughout history.

A Muslim empire was established in 632 with the Prophet Muhammad as its leader.

During this era, or khalifa, Muhammad preached Islam to spread the word of God.

Once enough people converted to create a solid base of believers, Muhammad led them in conquering Arabia and forming a new society based on the Islamic principles he preached.

Eventually, this new society grew large enough to support notable artists, writers and musicians.

The caliphate continued to function, albeit with diminished authority, under the Umayyad and Abbassid dynasties.

After Muhammad’s death at age 66 in 632 C.E., disagreements over who should lead the Muslim community arose between Abu Bakr and Muhammad’s cousin-once removed-alleged successor, ‘Aliy ibn Abi Talib.

This caused a section of Muslims to choose Ali over Abu Bakr, resulting in Abu Bakr becoming the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) under Muhammad’s authority.

The Islamic doctrine of election (qarash), which was defined by Abu Musa al-Ashari in 8th century C.E., became an important factor in establishing political order within the Muslim community.

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This doctrine also emphasized that there can be no rebellion against an elected caliph since this would undermine Allah’s will.

Throughout its history, the caliphate has embodied political and spiritual authority vested in one man by Allah-the prophet Muhammad himself-to unite the entire nation under one banner against polytheism and heresy.

However, after Muhammad’s death, power associated with his position -the caliphate-displaced pagan rulership as a replacement for Judaism in Arabia’s society.

Despite various challenges to its authority after its inception, Islam survived as a vibrant religion accessible to all people through its established caliphate system.

The prophet Muhammad established Islam in the 7th century C.E.

in Mecca as a reformist movement away from the corruptions of the pagan Meccan society.

He and his companions initially came under persecution by the leadership of Arabia’s pagan community.

After Muhammad and his companions migrated to Medina, however, they defeated the Meccans in what became known as the ‘Battle of Badr.’ From Medina, Muhammad launched a military campaign against the city-state of Mecca and succeeded in overthrowing its pagan ruler, Quraysh, thereby establishing the first Muslim caliphate.

The Islamic world was greatly benefited from the knowledge disseminated by the scholars in Baghdad under the Abbasid caliphate.

The reasons for this are obvious- if an idea or invention can help defeat an enemy, it will be spread among the soldiers and generals of an expanding Islamic empire.

However, this did not mean that all Muslims were literate or had good grasp of mathematics and science at this time.

Even so, many scholars came from all across Asia and Africa to study in Baghdad under the Abbasid caliphate.

These scholars brought with them valuable knowledge that enriched both Muslim culture and those cultures in non-Muslim countries they encountered on their way there.

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The first dynasty under the Abbasid banner was responsible for major intellectual and scientific progress.

It promoted education and encouraged translation of ancient texts into Arabic.

The most significant translation during this period was the one that led to the formation of Christianity.

However, it was not until 300 years later that another translation would lead to yet another one- hundred years later that yet another translation would lead to Coptic Christianity.

This series of translations eventually led to Syriac Christianity as well as Byzantine Christianity.

Another achievement during this time was an astronomical map that depicted the earth as a globe for the first time.

They also introduced decimal places, an accounting system and a calendar for those years that could now contain more than 12 months.

The history of Islam dates back to the 7th century AD.

During that era, the Muslim prophet Muhammad delivered his divine message to the people of Arabia.

After Muhammad’s death, his companions carried on his cause in a harsh environment.

By 632 AD, they had defeated the last opposition to their new religion.

Muhammad’s followers then joined together to fight a common enemy under a single leadership.

This union of believers into Muhammad’s army was later named ‘musmu’ahhh.’ The resulting army became known as the Muslim army or simply ‘muslems,’ from the Latin word for brothers.

In addition to fighting, the Muslim army sought knowledge from their conquered lands.

This is when the beginnings of the Islamic civilization can be found.

Another reason why the Abbasid caliphate was so important is because it spanned two different literary traditions within Islam: Arab culture and Persian culture.

Arab culture is more commonly associated with poetry, romance and desert life while Persian culture is more commonly associated with algebra, geometrical formulas and city life.

Even so, both cultures came together with a willingness to understand each other due to common beliefs in religion- namely Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Christianity in addition to Islam itself.

This allowed for greater understanding between Arab philosophers and Persian scientists which contributed to yet another area in which art and literature grew under this dynasty’s patronage.

The Abbasid caliphate had several major achievements in history because it united Muslim believers into one culture-spreading army under one leadership.

This allowed for greater knowledge among Muslim scholars which contributed greatly to cultural growth within the entire Islamic world.

Even though many areas were benefited by what was happening in Baghdad during this time, people now refer to that era as ‘the golden age of Islam.’

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