Songhai Promotion Of Islam Ap World History

Songhai Promotion Of Islam Ap World History – The Kingdom of Songhai, or Songhai, arose from a community of fishermen who lived along the Niger River and were skilled canoeists. In the 9th century, they became part of the Songhai state and began trading with Muslim merchants in Gao, which later became part of the kingdom.

The Kingdom of Songhai arose from the ashes of the Kingdom of Mali and became the last kingdom in western Sudan. Dominating the region, Mali conquered the small kingdom of Gao in 1325. The kingdom’s capital, Gao, was conquered by the Songhai before the arrival of Mansa Musa from Mali, and Mali began to decline after Musa’s death in the 18th century. XIV. , Songhai began to flourish around 1464.

Songhai Promotion Of Islam Ap World History

The leader who inspired this uprising was Soni Ali, or Ali the One, who conquered most of the Mali Empire, including the city of Timbuktu. For the next 100 years, as the Songhai Empire reached its height, the emperor actively promoted Islam as a religion and Islamic teachings. In the late 15th century, Songhai replaced Mali, but was defeated by a major Moroccan power in the late 16th century. This ended 700 years of centralized and powerful rule by the black kingdom over western Sudan.

Resourcesforhistoryteachers / Period 3:1 Communication And Exchange Networks

Great Songhai leaders like Sonny Ali Ber, who was killed in a Muslim rebellion, and his successor, Askia Muhammad Toure, made this empire the most powerful in West Africa. It was bigger than Mali and Ghana and it brought an organized government to the area. Sonny Ali aggressively ushered Gao into the Songhai Kingdom with his cavalry and fleet of highly mobile ships. He captured the port of Timbuktu and Jenne, or Jenne, two important cities in Mali.

The kings of the Mali Empire were called “mansa”, which means “lord”, a title adopted by Sudiata. The most famous after Sundiata was his grandson Mansa Kankan Musa I. Musa, who ruled from 1312 to 1337. He was not the first Muslim ruler of Mali, but he became famous as a result of the Hajj. He made a pilgrimage to Mecca, the holy city of Islam, in 1324 and 1325. His display of wealth and generosity attracted the attention of the entire Islamic world and Europe.

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With Sonia Ali and Askia Muhammad Toure came the new ruling dynasty, Askia. He continued Soni Ali’s campaign to expand the kingdom by controlling important oases in the Sahara desert and defeating Malini. He followed this up with campaigns to conquer neighboring kingdoms. He centralized his government by introducing a large bureaucratic force to control and manage his kingdom.

Muhammad Tureh innovated and improved trade, standardizing weights, measures, and currency, uniting the various Songhai cultures into a single national culture. He was also a devout Muslim and replaced the Songhai administrators with Arab Muslims to spread Islam throughout his empire. Muslim judges known as qadis administered their legal system in accordance with Muslim principles. Most of the city dwellers converted to Islam. In rural areas, where 97% of the Songhai live, traditional African religions predominate.

Three Of The World’s Most Influential Empires: Ghana, Mali, And Songhai

Like the kingdoms of Ghana and Mali before it, Songhai grew rich through trade. A privileged artisan class existed, and slaves were used primarily as agricultural laborers. Trade really flourished under Mohammed Toure, with kola nuts, gold, and slaves being the main exports. These goods were exchanged for textiles, horses, salt, and luxury items.

Leo África, a Spanish Moroccan traveler and writer who visited Gao, noted the presence of a very wealthy ruling class: “The houses there are very poor except for the king and his court. The merchants are very rich and a large number of blacks come here. to buy imported fabrics from Barbary (Morocco) and Europe.” Leo Africa, a Spanish Moroccan traveler and writer who visited Gao, noted the presence of a very wealthy ruling class: “The houses there are very poor except for the king and his court, coming to look for him.

Songhai was destroyed by political infighting, but its mineral wealth attracted the attention of invaders. The Songhai Empire became too large to control, as environmental changes brought drought and disease. Although his army numbered 35,000 men, some of the inhabitants began to rebel against the king. This weakened the empire and one of its territories, Morocco, came to control its own gold mines and the sub-Saharan gold trade. In 1591, the Songhai Empire collapsed when the Moroccan army invaded. In 1612, the Songhai cities fell into anarchy and the largest empire in African history collapsed. As the knights roam medieval Europe, three great West African empires flourish with unimaginable wealth. Ghana, Mali, and Songhai controlled more gold and world trade than any European power during this period in history.

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Land Based Empires

The Ghana Empire, traditionally known as Wagadu, was the first of the West African empires. Located further north than the present Republic of Ghana, it is the smallest but longest-lived of the three historical regions. Situated between two major rivers, the Niger and the Senegal, and bordered by the Sahara to the east, Ghana became a center of trade between Arabs from the northern regions and Arabs and other African communities from the south. Bringing salt from North Africa, Arabs and others traded in Ghana for gold and ivory.

Ghana’s wealth has grown through a double-digit tax system, with gold being its most valuable commodity. When people brought gold from the empire, they paid taxes. Ghana also benefited from gold exports. Gold dust was the main currency of the time. Salt, however, is essential for human survival and few travel south. As the desire and need for more trade grew, Berber nomads established a caravan route through Western Sahara. Through this complex road system, traders from the Mediterranean traveled south to African strongholds like Ghana, trading their salt for ivory and gold.

Ghana’s leaders, the Soninke, managed to hide the main source of gold, the bamboo mines, from foreign traders. Soninka kept the core of the pure metal and amassed a great fortune, leaving the pure gold to sell to the common people. Historians believe that this international trade route mobilized hundreds of thousands of Africans, and that gold found its way to Europe and Asia from Ghana.

The collapse of these empires was due to internal political turmoil and encroachment on Ghana’s borders and looting of its major cities. Scholars tell us that there were groups like the Almoravids to the north, as well as the short-lived kingdom of Soso. Sundiata Keita, the founder of the Mali Empire, also took advantage of Ghana’s weakness. Shifting trade routes also played a part in its decline, as did civil wars over religious differences. Many people in Ghana reject Islam in favor of traditional belief systems.

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History Of Science And Technology In Africa

To read more about Ghana’s political systems and key leaders, see historian Philip Curtin

From the ashes of Ghana rose the next great civilization of its time, and the richest kingdom in world history, the Mali Empire. Mali’s roots go back to ancient Ghana and the Malinka people of Kangaba, who served as middlemen in the gold trade with foreigners. Sundiata Kita rose from his small kingdom of Kangaba, gained popular support, captured the last stronghold of the old Ghana, and began to rule the Mali Empire. His successors expanded the empire to include the trading cities of Timbuktu and Gao, and northern regions such as Taghaz, where there were valuable salt deposits. Mali amassed a fortune in Ghana and expanded his practice with great success.

In 1312 Musa I or Mansa (meaning king or emperor) Musa took the throne of Mali. He had more than 100,000 soldiers, including more than 10,000 cavalry. This army was a formidable fighting force that allowed Mansa Musa to double the size of his kingdom. He is remembered as the richest man who ever lived.

While he rules the gold center of the world, Mansa Musa’s wealth is unfathomable. Being a devout Muslim, Mansa Musa traveled across the continent and brought back scholars and architects. These scholars would found universities and mosques. Her 4,000-mile pilgrimage to Mecca allowed her to show his generosity to the common people. Golden gifts to Mansa Musa

World History Full Study Notes (and Ap)

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