What Is The Name Of The Sacred Text Of Islam

What Is The Name Of The Sacred Text Of Islam – Sinhalese wrappers and palm-leaf scrolls depicting the events between the Bodhisattva’s procession to teach the Dharma and Brahma Sahampati’s request after the Buddha’s awakening.

Folio of Ashtasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra manuscript, early 12th century, Shadaksari Lokesvara depicting transparent watercolor on palm leaf.

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Buddhist texts are religious texts related to the Buddhist tradition. The earliest Buddhist texts were not written until several centuries after the death of Gautama Buddha.

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The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts are the Gandhara Buddhist texts found in Afghanistan and written in Gandhari, from the first century BCE. to the third century BC

The first Buddhist texts were transmitted orally by Buddhist monks, but were later written in various Indo-Aryan languages ​​(such as Pali, Gandhari, and Buddhist hybrid Sanskrit), compiled in manuscript form, and compiled into various Buddhist canons.

As Buddhism spread outside India, these were translated into other languages, such as Buddhist Chinese (fójiào hànyǔ yēngíngìǔ) and classical Tibetan.

Buddhist texts can be divided into several types. In the West, the terms “scriptural” and “canonical” are used interchangeably by Western Buddhist scholars: for example, one authority refers to “scriptural and other canonical texts” while another divides the scriptures into canonical, jubilee, and canonical. It is possible. Pseudocanonical. Buddhist tradition divides these texts into specific classes and sections, such as the Buddhavacana “words of the Buddha”, many of which are called “sutras” and other texts such as “sastra” (prabandha) or “abhidharma”. ..

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These religious texts were written in different languages, methods and writing systems. Memorizing, reading and copying verses was spiritually valuable. After the development of the printing press and its adoption by Buddhist institutions, Buddhists continued to copy by hand as a spiritual practice.

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To preserve these scriptures, Asian Buddhist institutions were at the forefront of adopting Chinese techniques related to book production, including paper and block printing, which were often used on a large scale. Thus, the first surviving example of a printed text is the Buddhist Charm, the first complete printed book is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra (ca. 868), and the first hand-painted print is the Illustration of Guanyin from 947.

The concept of Buddhavacana (the word Buddha) is important in understanding how Buddhists categorize and view their texts. The Buddhist scriptures have a special status as sacred scriptures and are closely related to the teachings of the historical Buddha, known as “Dharma”. According to Donald López, criteria for determining what would be considered the teachings of the Buddha were developed at an early stage, and early formulations do not indicate that the religion was limited to what the historical Buddha said.

The Mahasangika and the Mulasarvastivada regarded the discourses of the Buddha and his disciples as Buddhaawakna.

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Various beings such as Buddha, Buddha’s disciples, sages and devas are believed to be able to transmit Buddhakana.

The content of such discourses must be compared with the Vinaya and compared with the Sutras and evaluated against the nature of religion.

These texts can be verified as genuine Buddhavakana by the Buddha, the Sangha, a small group of elders or learned elders.

In Theravada Buddhism, the standard body of the Buddhawaka is the Pali Canon, also known as the Tripitaka (“three baskets”). In general, the Theravada school rejects the Mahayana Sutras as Buddhavacana (words of the Buddha) and does not study or view these texts as reliable sources.

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In East Asian Buddhism, the Buddhawakana is known as a collection of Chinese Buddhism. The most common version is the Taisho Tripitaka, which itself is based on the Tripitaka Koreana. This collection, unlike the Pali Tripitaka, contains Mahayana sutras, shastras (scientific texts) and mystical Buddhist literature.

According to Hsuan Hua, the verbatim of the Chinese Buddhist tradition, there are five types of beings who can speak Buddhist sutras: the Buddha, a disciple of the Buddha, a deva, a sage, or the origin of one of these; However, they must first obtain a certificate that Buddha is the true religion.

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What is considered the Buddha Vigil in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism is collected in the Kangyur (“Translation of Words”). East Asian and Tibetan Buddhist canons have always combined the Buddha Vigil with other literature in their standard collected editions. However, the general view of what Buddhism is and is not is similar to East Asian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. Belonging to various schools of Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism, the Tibetan Kangyuri contains sutras and vinayas, Buddhist tantras, and other related tantric literature.

Ancient Buddhist texts were transmitted orally in the Middle Indo-Aryan languages ​​known as Prakrit, including Gandhari, early Magadhan, and Pali, using repetition, general recitation, and mnemonic devices.

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These texts were later collected into canons and written down in manuscripts. For example, the Pali canon survives in Sri Lanka, where it was written in the first century BC.

There are early texts from various Buddhist schools, with the largest collections from the Theravada and Sarvastivada schools, but there are also complete texts and excerpts from the Dharmaguptaka, Mahasanghika, Mahishasaka, Moolasarvastivada and others.

The most studied early Buddhist material is the first four Pali Nikayas, as well as the related Chinese Agama.

Modern studies of pre-sectarian Buddhism often rely on comparative studies with these various early Buddhist sources.

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According to Buddhist scholars as diverse as Richard Gombrich, Akira Hirakawa, Alexander Winne, and AK Warder, early Buddhist texts contain material relating to the historical Buddha himself, or at least to the early years of pre-communal Buddhism.

Although there are many versions of texts from the early Buddhist school, the only complete set of texts that has survived is the Tipitaka (Triple Basket) of the Middle Indo-Aryan Theravada school.

Other surviving (partial) versions of the Tripitaka from the early schools include the Chinese Agamas, including the Sarvastivada and Dharmaguptaka collections. The Chinese Buddhist canon contains a complete set of the early sutras in Chinese translation, the content of which is similar to the Pali, differing in detail but not in fundamental principle.

The Tibetan Canon contains some of these early texts, but not as a complete collection. The earliest known Buddhist manuscripts containing early Buddhist texts are the 1st century BC Gandhara Buddhist texts, which were an important link between Indian and East Asian Buddhism. It forms the Buddhist textual tradition of Gandharana Buddhism.

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Fragments of what may be Dharmaguptaka doctrine can be found in these Gandhara Buddhist texts.

There are various types of early Buddhist texts, including prose “suttas” (Sanskrit: sutra, discourse), disciplinary works (Vinaya), various forms of poetic composition (such as gatha and udana), mixed prose and verse (geya), and monastic rules or Also list of theoretical subjects (Matics). Much early Buddhist literature is part of the “Sutta” or “Sutra” scriptures. Sutras (Sanskrit; Pāli: sutta) are discourses often attributed to the Buddha or one of his closest disciples. All schools regard them as sayings of the Buddha. The Buddha’s discourses were probably arranged according to the manner in which they were delivered. They were later organized into collections called Nikayas (“sections”) or Agamas (“scriptures”), which were later collected into the Sutra Pitaka (“basket of texts”), the doctrines of the early Buddhist schools.

The earliest surviving sutras are those of the Sthavira Nikaya schools, with no complete collection surviving from the Mahasanghika, another early branch of Buddhism. However, some individual texts survive, such as the Shalistamba Sutra (Rice Stock Sutra). This sutra has many parallel passages from the Pali Sutta. As Ann Ross Reith points out, this text contains the main teachings of the early formulas of the Sthavira schools, such as the deep “middle way” between origin, eternity and annihilation, the “five aggregates”, the “trinity”. Lessons learned. Unwholesome Roots,” the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path.

Another important source for the Mahasanghika Sutras is the Mahavastu (“Great”), a compilation of various texts on the Buddha’s biography. In it can be found quotations and entire sutras such as the Mahasangha version of the Dharmachakrapravartana.

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Besides the sutras, another important type of text is the Vinaya. The Vinaya literature is mainly concerned with monastic discipline and the rules and regulations governing the Buddhist monastic community (sangha). But vinaya also differs from dharma as a word, where the couplet (dhamma-vinaya) means something like “teaching and discipline”. Indeed, there are many texts in the Vinaya literature. Of course, there are those who discuss monastic rules, how they came about, how they developed and how they are applied. But the Vinaya also contains parts of certain doctrinal expositions, ritual and religious texts, biographical narratives, and “jatakas” or birth stories. The various collections of Vinayas are fully preserved,

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